广州炒股配资

 

科学好故事|卵生还是胎生?生殖方式的演化故事

2020-5-26 编辑:采编部 来源:互联网 阅读次数:
  导读:  “先有鸡还是先有蛋”是一个古老的谜题,但其实从动物生殖方式演化的角度,这个问题并不难回答。几乎可以肯定,卵生出现在胎生之前,也就是现有“蛋”后有“鸡”;5亿年前生活在海...

  “XIANYOUJIHAISHIXIANYOUDAN”SHIYIGEGULAODEMITI,DANQISHICONGDONGWUSHENGZHIFANGSHIYANHUADEJIAODU,ZHEIGEWENTIBINGBUNANHUIDA。JIHUKEYIKENDING,LUANSHENGCHUXIANZAITAISHENGZHIQIAN,YEJIUSHIXIANYOU“DAN”HOUYOU“JI”;5YINIANQIANSHENGHUOZAIHAIYANGZHONGDEDUNPIYUBEIRENWEISHISUOYOULUDIJIZHUIDONGWUDEZUXIAN,TAMENSIHUYIJINGHUICHANLUANLE。DANSHI,JIEXIALAIDEGUSHIQUEYUANMEIYOUZHEIMEJIANDAN。

  ZAIMANZHANGDEYANHUAGUOCHENGZHONG,DAZIRANZHIJICHULELIANGZHONGRANGXINSHENGDONGWULAIDAOZHEIGESHIJIEDEFANGSHI。YAOMESHIMUTICHANXIAYIGELUAN,RANGHOUDAIZAIFUCHUZHIQIANZAILUANNEIJIXUSHENGZHANG;YAOMEXINGETIYIZHIDAIZAIMUQINTINEI,ZHIDAOZHANGCHENGYIGEGENGWANZHENGDEYOUTI。CONGZHEILIKAISHI,JIUYOULEZHENZHENGDEJIBENFENQI。

  LUANSHENGHETAISHENGZHIJIANYOUZHEYANGEDESHENGZHIERFENFA,ZHEIQIZHONGYOUSHENMEYUANSHIDEYUANYINMA?TAISHENGSHISHENMESHIHOUCHUXIANDE?WEISHENMEHUIYANHUACHUTAISHENG?ZAIDEYANJIUZHONG,KEXUEJIAZHENGZAIDUIZHEIXIEWENTIZHANKAITANSUO,SHITULEJIEYOUXINGSHENGZHIDEJUDAFUZAXINGHEKEBIANXING。TAMENDEYANJIUDUIXIANGJIUBAOKUOYIZHONGJINENGLUANSHENGYOUNENGTAISHENGDEXIYI。

  YIZHONGCELVEXUANZE

  ZAOQICIXINGDONGWUDECHANLUANFANGSHIXIANGDANGYUXIANGHUANJINGZHONGSHIFANGLUANZI,TONGCHANGSHIYICISHUQIANMEI。XIONGXINGSHIFANGDEJINGZIHUIYISUIJIDEFANGSHISHIQIZHONGYIBUFENLUANZISHOUJING,XINGCHENGDEPEITAIJIANGZAICHONGMANDIYIDEHUANJINGZHONGSHENGCUN,ZHIZHIFUHUA。XUDUOSHENGWU,YOUQISHIXIAOXING、JIANDANDESHENGWU,XIANZAIRENGRANZAIYIZHEIZHONGFANGSHIFANZHI。

广州炒股配资  DANSUIZHEDONGWUBIANDEYUELAIYUEFUZA,JIZHUIDONGWU——BAOKUOXUDUOLIANGQIDONGWU、PAXINGDONGWUSHENZHIYIXIEYULEI(RUSHAYU)——ZHUANXIANGLEYIZHONGBUNEIMEMAOXIANDECELVE:TINEISHOUJING。TONGGUOZHEIZHONGFANGSHI,CIXINGKEYIQUEBAOGENGGAOBILIDELUANZISHOUJING,TAMENYEKEYIGENGYOUXUANZEXINGDIYUXIONGXINGJIAOPEI。PEITAIKEYIZAIMUQINTINEIANQUANFAYU,ZHIDAOMUQINZUIZHONGJIANGQISHIFANGDAOYIGEBAOHUXINGDEQIAONEI。

广州炒股配资  TAISHENGDEYANHUAGENGWAN,ERQIEBUZHIYICI。JINZAIPAXINGDONGWUZHONG,ZHEIZHONGSHENGZHIFANGSHIJIUZHISHAOYANHUALE121CI。JINGUANKEXUEJIABINGBUQUEQIEZHIDAODIYIZHICONGMUTICHUSHENGDEHUOTIDONGWUCHUXIANZAISHENMESHIHOU,DANTAMENYIJINGLEJIESHISHENMELILIANGTUIDONGLELUANSHENGDAOTAISHENGDEZHUANBIAN,YIJIZAICIZHIQIANDEYANHUABUZHOU。

  DANGRAN,ZHEILIANGZHONGSHENGZHIFANGSHIDOUNENGWANCHENGFANYANHOUDAIDEGONGZUO,DANTAMENDEYOUDIANHENANDIANQUEJIERANBUTONG。HENGUANJIANDEYIDIANSHI,CAIQULUANSHENGFANGSHIDECIXINGDONGWUKEYIGENGZAODICONGSHENTISHANGBAITUOHOUDAI。LIRU,NIAOLEICONGWEIYANHUACHUTAISHENGNENGLI,ZHEIKENENGSHIYINWEITAMENWUFACHENGSHOUZAIHUAIYUNQIJIANFEIXINGDENENGLIANGCHENGBEN。CHANLUANDONGWUTONGCHANGYICINENGCHANXIAGENGDUODEHOUDAI,YINWEIMUQINDETIXINGDAXIAOBUZAISHIXIANZHIYINSU。ZHEIZHONGYOUSHIKENENGBUFENDIXIAOLERANGLUANBAOLUZAIELIEHUANJING(BAOKUOBUSHIZHEHETIANQIDENGYINSU)ZHONGDEFENGXIAN。

广州炒股配资  LINGYIFANGMIAN,TAISHENGDECIXINGDONGWUKEYIWEIPEITAITIGONG“JUSUO”,SHITAMENZAIGENGZHANGSHIJIANNEIMIANSHOUBUSHIZHEHEHUANJINGWEIXIANDESHANGHAI。DANZHEIMEZUOYEHUISHIMUQINZAIZIDANFENGXIAN:HUAIYUNSHITAMENMIANLINGENGDUODEBUSHIWEIXIE,PEITAIBENSHENYEHUIDUITAMENDESHENGMINGZAOCHENGWEIXIAN。“PEITAIZHONGYOUYIBUFENSHIWAILAIDE,TADEZUZHIHUIQINRUMUTIDEZUZHI,ZHEIYOUDIANRANGRENXISIJIKONG。ZAIHUAIYUNQIJIAN,MUQINHUIXIANGZOUGANGSIYIYANGBAOCHIPINGHENG,ZAIJIANGNENGLIANGHEWUZHIZIYUANZHUANYIJI“WAILAISHENGWU”DETONGSHIQUEBAOZIJIDEJIANKANG。

广州炒股配资  YINCI,LUANSHENGHETAISHENGDEZHUYAOQUBIEJIUZAIYUMUQINYINGGAIZAISHENMESHIHOUCHANCHUPEITAIDEYANHUACELVE。RUGUOHENZAOJIUCHANCHUPEITAI,NEITAJIUSHILUANSHENGDONGWU;RUGUOHENWANCAICHANCHUPEITAI,NEITAJIUSHITAISHENGDONGWU。LIRU,DADUOSHUPAXINGDONGWUHUIZAIFAYUGUOCHENGYUESANFENZHIYIDESHIHOUCHANCHUPEITAI。

广州炒股配资  ZAIZHENZHENGDELUANSHENGHETAISHENGZHIJIAN,YOUHENDUOKENENGDECHANCHUPEITAISHIJIAN,DANZHEIMEZUOKENENGSHIBULIDE,WOMENCHENGZHIWEI“SHIYINGXINGGUDI”。SHITUZAI“SHIYINGXINGGUDI”DEMOUCHUSHENGCHUHOUDAIDEDONGWUKENENGHUICHENGDANLUANSHENGHETAISHENGDESUOYOUFENGXIAN,QIEDEBUDAOERZHEDEHAOCHU,CONGYANHUADEJIAODULAIKAN,ZHEISHIFEICHANGBULIDE。

  ZHIDEYITIDESHI,YOUDAIDONGWUZHAODAOLEYIZHONGXINDEFANGFALAIPINGHENGZHEIXIEFENGXIAN:TAMENSHENGXIADEYOUZAIZAIWEICHENGSHUSHISHIJISHANGJIUSHITAIER,DANSUIHOUTAMENZAIMUQINDEYUERDAINEIWANCHENGFAYU。TONGGUOZHEIZHONGFANGSHI,MUQINKEYIWEICUIRUODEHOUDAITIGONGBAOHU,SHIQIFAYUDAOYIDINGDAXIAO,ERBUXUYAOZAITINEIRONGNAYIGEFAYUWANQUANDEXINSHENGER。

  SHIHEXIONGXINGDEWENDU

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  ZAI2009NIANFABIAOZAI《ZIRAN》(Nature)ZAZHISHANGDEYIPIANLUNWENZHONGZHICHU,ZAIYIGEWUZHONGNENGGOUYANHUACHUTAISHENGZHIQIAN,TAKENENGBIXUXIANYANHUACHUCONGJIYINSHANGJUEDINGHOUDAIXINGBIEDENENGLI。XUDUOSHENGWUDEXINGBIESHIJIANJIEJUEDINGDE,QUJUEYUHUANJINGYINSU,YOUQISHIWENDU。BUTONGDEWENDUKEYIJUEDINGPEITAIFAYUCHENGXIONGXINGHAISHICIXING。YANJIUXIANSHI,LIYONGJIYINLAIJUEDINGXINGBIEYUTAISHENGZHIJIANYOUHENQIANGDETONGJIXIANGGUANXING。ZHEISHISHENGWUXUEJIATONGGUOGUANCHASUODECHUDEJIELUN,DANSHANGWEIJINGGUOYANGEDEYANZHENG。

  HAIGUIJIUSHIYIGEZHEIYANGDELIZI。TAMENZAILUDISHANGJIHUBUNENGYIDONG,DANRENGRANHUIDAOHAITANSHANGCHANLUAN。RUGUOTAMENBASUOYOUDELUANDOUCHANZAISHUILI,NEIJIUBUTAIKENENGDEDAODUOBIANDEXINGBIEBILI,YINWEIHAISHUILIDEWENDUTIDUBIZAILUDISHANGXIAODEDUO。

  RANER,YIDANYIGEHAIYANGWUZHONGYANHUACHULETONGGUOJIYINJUEDINGXINGBIEDENENGLI,TAJIUBUZAIXUYAOMAOXIANHUIDAOLUDISHANG,ERSHINENGGOUWANQUANSHIYINGSHUISHENGSHENGHUO。MEIYOULEZAILUDISHANGXINGDONGHEZHUCHAODEXUYAO,MEIYIGELEIQUNDOUYANHUACHULEDUIYUANYANGSHENGHUOFANGSHIDEJIDUANSHENTISHIYING,BIRUYULONG(YILEISHIQIANHAIYANGPAXINGDONGWU)DEBIANXINGWEIBA、BEIQIHECHIBANGZHUANGDESIZHI。

  KEXUEJIAYIKAISHIRENWEIYULONGDEPAXINGLEIZUXIANZHIYOUZAICONGLUDIQIANYIDAOHAIYANGZHIHOU,CAIYOUKENENGYANHUACHUTAISHENG。DANYIJU2YI4800WANNIANQIANDEHUASHIDEFAXIANGAIBIANLEZHEIYIQIE。ZAI2014NIANFABIAODEYIPIANLUNWENZHONG,YANJIURENYUANMIAOSHULEYIJUZAIFENMIANSHISIWANGDEYULONGHUASHI。LINGRENJINGYADESHI,HUASHIJINGZHUNBAOLIULEXINSHENGYOUTITOUCHAOXIACONGMUQINGUPENLICHULAIDESHIKE。ZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGSHUOMING:DADUOSHUTAISHENGHAIYANGPAXINGDONGWUCHUSHENGSHIDOUSHIWEIBAXIANZHANGCHULAIDE,ZHEIYANGTAMENJIUKEYIZAIFENMIANGUOCHENGZHONGJIXUCONGMUQINNEILIXISHOUYANGQI;ERTOUXIANCHULAIDEZISHIBIAOMINGYULONGCONGGENGGULAODELUDIZUXIANNEILIJICHENGLETAISHENGFANGSHI。YINCI,LUDISHANGDEPAXINGDONGWUKENENGZAIZHISHAO2.5YINIANDESHIJIANLIYIZHIYITAISHENGFANYANHOUDAI,JINGUANZAILUDISHANGFAXIANDEZUIGULAOTAISHENGHUASHIBINGMEIYOUNEIMEJIUYUAN。

  LUANSHENG、TAISHENGHUOJIANERYOUZHI

广州炒股配资  DUIYUYIGEWUZHONGLAISHUO,TAISHENGHUOLUANSHENGSIHUSHIMINGQUEDEFEICIJIBIDEXUANZE,DANLINGRENJINGYADESHI,QINGKUANGBINGFEIZONGSHIRUCI。AODALIYAYOUYIZHONGXIYI:SANZHISHILONGZI(Saiphos equalis)。ZHEIZHONGXIYISHISHAOSHUJIZHONG“SHUANGSHENGZHI”WUZHONGZHIYI,QIXIANZHUTEDIANSHIJINENGCHANLUAN,YOUNENGTAISHENG。QITAYIXIEXIYIWUZHONGTONGCHANGHUIZAIBUTONGDEHUANJINGXIAZHEIMEZUO,DANZAISHIYANSHILI,YANJIURENYUANGUANCHADAOYIZHISANZHISHILONGZICHANXIADETONGYITAIZHONG,BAOKUOLESANMEILUANHEYIZHIHUODEYOUTI。ZHEIRANGKEXUEJIAWANQUANJINGDAILE!

  JINRI,YANJIURENYUANMIAOSHULELUANSHENGYUTAISHENGXIYIMUTIZAIJIYINBIAODASHANGDECHAYI。ZAIYIGEWUZHONGZHONG,XIELUANDECIXINGHEWEIXIELUANDECIXINGZHIJIANYOUCHENGQIANSHANGWANGEJIYINBIAODACHAYI,ZHEISHIYINWEIZAIZIGONGYUNYULUANZIDESHIHOU,MOUXIEJIYINHUIBEIJIHUO。TONGYANGDEQINGKUANGYEFASHENGZAIYUNYUPEITAIDEMUTIZIGONGZHONG。GUANJIANZAIYU,LIANGZHONGQINGKUANGXIABEIJIHUODETEDINGJIYINSHIFEICHANGBUTONGDE。

  DANSHIZAISANZHISHILONGZIZHONG,DANGMUTIZHIZAOLUANZISHIJIHUODEXUDUOJIYIN,TONGYANGYEHUIZAIXIEDAIPEITAIDEMUTINEIBEIJIHUO。ZHEIYIFAXIANBIAOMING,ZHEIZHONGXIYIZHENGCHUYULUANSHENGHETAISHENGZHIJIANDEGUODUZHUANGTAI。

广州炒股配资  ZHEIZHONGXIYIZUIZHONGJIANGYANHUACHENGSHENMEYANGDESHENGZHIFANGSHI,MUQIANHAIWUFAQUEDING。YANHUASHIYIGESUIJIDEGUOCHENG,BINGBUSHIBEIZHIDAODE,SUIZHEHUANJINGDEBIANHUA,TAKENENGHUIGAIBIANXUANZEDEFANGXIANG,BINGZOUSHANGLINGYITIAOLU。

  ZAIYANHUASHENGWUXUELINGYUZHONG,SANZHISHILONGZIKENENGHUICONGTAISHENGHUIDAOLUANSHENGDEGUANDIAN,KEYISHUOSHIYIGEXIANGDUIJIAOXINDEJINZHAN。20NIANQIAN,KEXUEJIARENWEILUANSHENGHENNANHUOZHESHUOBUKENENGZHONGXINYANHUA。DANCONGSANZHISHILONGZIZHIHOU,YUELAIYUEDUODEYANJIUBIAOMING,ZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGKENENGXIANGDANGPUBIAN。JINQIDUIWUZHONGJIANYICHUANGUANXIDEFENXIXIANSHI,MOUXIELUANSHENGDONGWUYULINGYIXIETAISHENGDONGWUZAIYANHUASHUZHONGSHANGYOUZHEHENSHENDEGUANLIAN。

  SHINAXIEJIYINGONGJUSHITAISHENGCHENGWEIKENENG?TAISHENGYOUSHENMEJIBENGUIZEMA?TAISHENGZAIYANHUAGUOCHENGZHONGSHIFOUSHIYONGLEXIANGTONGDEJIYINZHILING?BUTONGDEWUZHONGHUIYOUXIANGTONGDEWENTIMA?

  ZAIXUNZHAODAANDEGUOCHENGZHONG,SANZHISHILONGZIBINGBUSHIKEGONGYANJIUDEYIZHONGQITESHENGWU。HAIMASHIMUQIANYIZHIXIONGXINGHUIHUAIYUNDEDONGWU:CIXINGHAIMAHUIJIANGZIJIDELUANZIZHUANYIDAOBANLVDEYUERDAINEI,ZAINEILISHOUJINGHEFAYU。DUIHAIMADEYANJIUBIAOMING,XIONGXINGHAIMAJIHUODEJIYINYUQITAXUDUOWUZHONGDECIXINGTAISHENGSHIJIHUODEJIYINXIANGTONG,ZHEIYIDIANZHIDEZHUYI。

  XIANZAIYANJIUDEMUDEZAITAOLUNDESHIBUTONGDEXINGBIE,SHIWANQUANBUTONGDEZUZHI,SHIZHEIZHONGTEZHENGZAIWANQUANBUTONGDEWUZHONGZHONGYANHUACHULAI,ERQIEXIANGGESHUBAIWANNIAN,ZHEIJIUXIANGZHEIXIEJINGRENDEZIRANZHONGFUYANHUASHIYANYIJINGJINXINGLESHUBAIWANNIAN。


BENWENGUANJIANCI:

WENZHANGCHUZI:HULIANWANG,WENZHONGNEIRONGHEGUANDIANBUDAIBIAOBENWANGZHANLICHANG,RUYOUQINQUAN,QINGNINGAOZHI,WOMENJIANGJISHICHULI。

 
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